# Plotting Examples – Line Graph in R

R is extremely versatile when it comes to plotting data but it can be troublesome to use R for visualizations – particularly when you are not yet as used to R. In the following I will show you how to set up a line graph with three lines representing different mean frequencies of three groups during three stages of a process. I frequently use line plots and as a colleague struggled to set one up in R I thought that including an example may be of interest for some of you.

Creating a line graph is pretty straight forward and rather easy. However, you have a lot of options that can and sometimes have to specify – you can find a very nice and VERY handy overview of the graphical parameters you can customize here. We are going to set this graph up in three steps: first, we plot one vector, then we plot the other two vectors, and , finally, we will define and plot the axes. Have a look at the code below to see how it can be done.

 ```1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 ``` ```##################################################### ### R Script "Visualizations with R: Line Graph" ##################################################### ### START ##################################################### # Remove all lists from the current workspace rm(list=ls(all=T)) # create vectors with some data points male <- c(1.6829871, 0.7339867, 0.2307310) female <- c(0.9524596, 0.5481039, 0.4289967) combined <- c(1.2639248, 0.6427771, 0.3125549) # round vectors so they look nicer in the plot male <- round(male, 2) female <- round(female, 2) combined <- round(combined, 2) # setting up line graph plot(female, # plot the vector called "female" type = "o", # use plot type "o" (overplotted points and lines) lwd = 2, # use double line width (4 for 4 times the normal line width) lty = 1, # use line type 1 (striaght line) pch = 19, # use point character 19 (filled circle) ylim = c(0, 3), # the y-axis should be drawn from 0 to 3 ylab = "Relative Frequency", # the y-axis label should read "Relative Frequency" xlab = "Stages", # the x-axis label should read "Stages" axes = F, # don't draw axes yet! cex = 1) # all writing should be of normal size (.5 for half size) # add aline for the data points in vector male (pch = 0: use empty squares as point characters) lines(male, type = "o", lwd = 2, lty = 1, pch = 0, cex = 1) # add aline for the data points in vector combined # (lty = 3: use a dotted line instead of a straight line and # pch = 4: use x marks as point characters) lines(combined, type = "o", lwd = 2, lty = 3, pch = 4, cex = 1) # add x-axes with specified labels at specified intervals axis(1, at = 0:4, lab = c("", "Stage 1", "Stage 2", "Stage 3", "")) # add y-axes with specified labels at specified intervals axis(2, at = seq(0, 3, .5), las = 1, lab = seq(0, 3, .5)) # create a legend # define vector with linetypes linetype <- c(1, 1, 3) # define vector with point charaters plotchar <- c(19, 0, 4) # set up legend legend("topright", inset = .05, c("female", "male", "both genders combined"), horiz = F, pch = plotchar, lty = linetype) # create a box around the plot box() # create a grid in the plot grid() ###############################################################```

Below is what the code produces. 